Бетховен (beethoven) (исп. эмиль гилельс)

General Information

Work Title Piano Sonata No.31
Alternative. Title
Name Translations Piano Sonata No. 31; Klaviersonate Nr. 31; Sonate pour piano nº 31 de Beethoven; Sonata per pianoforte n. 31; ピアノソナタ第31番; Pianosonate nr. 31; Sonata para piano n.º 31; Соната для фортепиано № 31; Соната для фортепіано № 31; Σονάτα για πιάνο No. 31; Pianoarentzako 31. Sonata; Sonata per a piano núm. 31; 피아노 소나타 31번; 贝多芬31号钢琴奏鸣曲; سونات شماره ۳۱ پیانو (بتهوون)
Name Aliases Piano Sonata No. 31 in A-flat Major, Op. 110; Piano Sonata in A flat major, Op. 110; Pianosonate nr. 31 (Beethoven)
Composer Beethoven, Ludwig van
Opus/Catalogue NumberOp./Cat. No. Op.110
I-Catalogue NumberI-Cat. No. ILB 192
Key A-flat major
Movements/SectionsMov’ts/Sec’s 3 movements:
  1. Moderato cantabile molto espressivo (A♭ major)
  2. Allegro molto (F minor)
  3. Adagio ma non troppo (B♭ minor)
    Arioso dolente (A♭ minor)
    Fuga. Allegro ma non troppo (A♭ major)
Year/Date of CompositionY/D of Comp. 1821
First Publication. 1822
Composer Time PeriodComp. Period Classical
Piece Style Romantic
Instrumentation piano
External Links Wikipedia article

Ноты Новый год и Рождество

  1. A Holly Jolly Christmas
  2. All I want for christmas is you
  3. Angels We Have Heard On High
  4. Caroling Caroling
  5. Christmas Is
  6. Ding, dong! Merrilly on high
  7. Feliz Navidad
  8. Frosty The Snow Man
  9. Happy New Year (ABBA)
  10. Here Comes Santa Claus
  11. Home For The Holidays
  12. I Saw Mommy Kissing Santa Claus
  13. I’ll Be Home For Christmas
  14. It Came Upon The Midnight Clear
  15. Jingle Bells
  16. Jingle Bells (2 вариант)
  17. Let It Snow! Let It Snow! Let It Snow!
  18. O Holy Night
  19. O Little Town of Bethlehem
  20. Rocking Around The Christmas Tree
  21. Rudolph The Red-Nosed Raindeer
  22. Santa Baby
  23. Santa Claus Is Coming To Town
  24. Silent Night
  25. Silver Bells
  26. Snowfall
  27. This Christmas
  28. The Most Wonderful Day Of The Year
  29. You’re All I Want For Christmas
  30. We Wish You A Merry Christmas
  31. We wish you a Merry Christmas (2 вариант)
  32. А снег повалится, повалится
  33. Белая дорожка
  34. Белый снег
  35. В зимнем лесу
  36. В лесу родилась елочка
  37. Валенки
  38. Внучка Снегурочка
  39. Диалог у новогодней елки
  40. Динь-динь-динь
  41. Дед Мороз
  42. Добрая зима
  43. Елка
  44. Ёлочка
  45. Завирюха
  46. Зимний сад
  47. Зимняя любовь
  48. Зимняя школьная
  49. К нам приходит Новый Год
  50. Кабы не было зимы
  51. Карнавал у елки
  52. Маленькой ёлочке
  53. Метель
  54. Музыка под снегом
  55. Новогодняя полька
  56. Новогодняя хороводная
  57. Новогоднее пожелание
  58. Ой, ты, зимушка, зима
  59. Песенка деда мороза
  60. Песенка зайца и волка на карнавале
  61. Поет зима — аукает
  62. Снег кружится
  63. Снегурочка
  64. Снегурочка
  65. Снежинки
  66. Три белых коня
  67. Рождественская песня
  68. Снег идет
  69. Снег кружится
  70. Эх вы сани, сани…


The Op. 110 sonata was recorded on 21 January 1932 by Artur Schnabel in Abbey Road Studios, London, for the first complete recording of the Beethoven piano sonatas. The piece was the first to be recorded in the set. Myra Hess’ recording of the work in 1953 was described by The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians as among her «greatest successes in the recording studio». Op. 110 was included in Glenn Gould’s 1956 recording of the last three Beethoven sonatas, and its third movement was discussed and performed by Gould on a 4 March 1963 broadcast. As part of complete recordings of the Beethoven piano sonatas, Op. 110 was recorded by Wilhelm Kempff in 1951, Claudio Arrau in 1965, Alfred Brendel in 1973, Maurizio Pollini in 1975, Daniel Barenboim in 1984, and Igor Levit by 2019.

Ноты русской классической музыки

  1. «Щелкунчик» Увертюра
  2. «Щелкунчик» №1 сцена зажигания ёлки
  3. «Щелкунчик» №2 марш
  4. «Щелкунчик» №3 детский галоп и танец родителей
  5. «Щелкунчик» №4 сцена с танцами
  6. «Щелкунчик» №5 сцена и танец гросс-фатер
  7. «Щелкунчик» №6 сцена
  8. «Щелкунчик» №7 сцена
  9. «Щелкунчик» №8 сцена
  10. «Щелкунчик» №9 вальс снежных хлопьев
  11. «Щелкунчик» №10 сцена
  12. «Щелкунчик» №11 сцена
  13. «Щелкунчик» Дивертисмент №12 шоколад
  14. «Щелкунчик» Дивертисмент №12 кофе
  15. «Щелкунчик» Дивертисмент №12 чай
  16. «Щелкунчик» Дивертисмент №12 трепак
  17. «Щелкунчик» Дивертисмент №12 танец пастушков
  18. «Щелкунчик» Дивертисмент №12 мамаша Гигонь и паяцы
  19. «Щелкунчик» Вальс цветов №13
  20. «Щелкунчик» №14 Pas de deux
  21. «Щелкунчик» №15 Финальный вальс
  22. «Щелкунчик» №16 Финал

«Времена года» (фортепианный цикл)

  1. Январь
  2. Февраль
  3. Март
  4. Апрель
  5. Май
  6. Июнь
  7. Июль
  8. Август
  9. Сентябрь
  10. Октябрь
  11. Ноябрь
  12. Декабрь
  1. Лезгинка (А. Рубинштейн)
  2. Прелюдия op.3 №2 до-диез минор (С. Рахманинов)
  3. Прелюдия №5 op.34 (Шостакович)

Navigation etc.

Beethoven Piano Sonatas
  • Piano Sonata No.1 in F minor, Op.2 No.1
  • Piano Sonata No.2 in A major, Op.2 No.2
  • Piano Sonata No.3 in C major, Op.2 No.3
  • Piano Sonata No.4 in E-flat major, Op.7 («Grand Sonata»)
  • Piano Sonata No.5 in C minor, Op.10 No.1 («Little Pathétique»)
  • Piano Sonata No.6 in F major, Op.10 No.2
  • Piano Sonata No.7 in D major, Op.10 No.3
  • Piano Sonata No.8 in C minor, Op.13 («Pathétique»)
  • Piano Sonata No.9 in E major, Op.14 No.1
  • Piano Sonata No.10 in G major, Op.14 No.2
  • Piano Sonata No.11 in B-flat major, Op.22
  • Piano Sonata No.12 in A-flat major, Op.26 («Funeral March»)
  • Piano Sonata No.13 in E-flat major, Op.27 No.1 («Quasi una fantasia»)
  • Piano Sonata No.14 in C-sharp minor, Op.27 No.2 («Moonlight»)
  • Piano Sonata No.15 in D major, Op.28 («Pastoral»)
  • Piano Sonata No.16 in G major, Op.31 No.1
  • Piano Sonata No.17 in D minor, Op.31 No.2 («The Tempest»)
  • Piano Sonata No.18 in E-flat major, Op.31 No.3 («The Hunt»)
  • Piano Sonata No.19 in G minor, Op.49 No.1 («Leichte Sonata»)
  • Piano Sonata No.20 in G major, Op.49 No.2 («Leichte Sonata»)
  • Piano Sonata No.21 in C major, Op.53 («Waldstein»)
  • Piano Sonata No.22 in F major, Op.54
  • Piano Sonata No.23 in F minor, Op.57 («Appassionata»)
  • Piano Sonata No.24 in F-sharp major, Op.78 («A Thérèse»)
  • Piano Sonata No.25 in G major, Op.79 («Cuckoo»)
  • Piano Sonata No.26 in E-flat major, Op.81a («Les adieux»)
  • Piano Sonata No.27 in E minor, Op.90
  • Piano Sonata No.28 in A major, Op.101
  • Piano Sonata No.29 in B-flat major, Op.106 («Hammerklavier»)
  • Piano Sonata No.30 in E major, Op.109
  • Piano Sonata No.31 in A-flat major, Op.110
  • Piano Sonata No.32 in C minor, Op.111

Ноты зарубежной популярной музыки

  1. Angelina
  2. Chances
  3. Church of your heart
  4. Cinnamon street 
  5. Come back
  6. Cooper & Crash
  7. Dangerous
  8. Do you get 
  9. Dressed for success
  10. Every time you leave
  11. Fingertips
  12. Here comes the weekend
  13. Hotblooded 
  14. Joyride
  15. Keep me waiting
  16. Knockin on every door
  17. Listen To Your Heart
  18. Never is a long time
  19. Perfect day
  20. Queen of Rain
  21. Physical fascination
  22. Silver blue 
  23. Small talk 
  24. So far away
  25. Soul deep
  26. Spending my time
  27. Things will never be the same
  28. The big L
  29. The heart shaped sea
  30. The look
  31. The rain 
  32. Watercolours in the rain


  1. Happy New Year
  2. Money
  3. Thank You for The Music
  4. The Winner Takes It All


  1. All That Im Living For
  2. Away from me
  3. Bleed
  4. Breathe no more
  5. Bring Me To Life
  6. Call me when you’re sober
  7. Cartoon Network
  8. Cloud Nine
  9. Eternal
  10. Even In Death
  11. Everybodys fool
  12. Exodus
  13. Farther away
  14. Field Of Innocence Full Band
  15. Forgive Me
  16. Give unto me
  17. Going under
  18. Good enough
  19. Goodnight
  20. Hello
  21. Heart shaped box
  22. Imaginary
  23. Like You
  24. Listen to the rain
  25. Lithium
  26. Lost Control
  27. My immortal live
  28. My last breath
  29. October
  30. Sally’s Song
  31. So close
  32. Solitude
  33. Sweet Sacrifice
  34. Taking over me
  35. The last song I’m wasting on you
  36. Thoughtless
  37. Together again
  38. You
  39. Your Star
  40. Whisper

Linkin Park

  1. Bleed It Out
  2. Breaking The Habit
  3. Crawling
  4. Faint
  5. From the inside
  6. Given Up
  7. Hands Held High
  8. In Between
  9. In Pieces
  10. In the end
  11. Leave Out All The Rest
  12. Lying from you
  13. No More Sorrow
  14. Pushing Me Away
  15. Shadow of the Day
  16. The Little Things Give You Away
  17. Valentine’s Day
  18. What I’ve Done
  19. My December

Josh Groban

  1. Mi Morena
  2. Mi Mancherai
  3. Hymne A L’amour
  4. Caruso
  5. Broken Vow
  6. All ‘Improvviso Amore
  7. You’re Still You
  8. Lucia di lammermoor
  9. Home To Stay
  10. Let Me Fall
  11. My Confession
  12. Never Let Go
  13. Oceano
  14. Per Te
  15. Remember When It Rained
  16. She’s Out Of My Life
  17. Si Volvieras A Mi
  18. When You Say You Love Me
  19. You Raise Me Up
  20. Gira Con Me

30 seconds to Mars

  1. The Kill
  2. A Beautiful Lie
  3. A Modern Myth
  4. Alibi
  5. I’ll Attack
  6. Battle of one
  7. Buddha for Mary
  8. Edge of the Earth
  9. End of Beginning
  10. Hurricane


  1. Across The Universe
  2. A Day In The Life
  3. A hard day’s night
  4. All you need is love
  5. And I love her
  6. Back In USSR
  7. Blackbird
  8. Can’t Buy My Love
  9. Day Tripper
  10. Eight days a week
  11. Eleanor rigby
  12. Every Little Thing
  13. From Me To You
  14. Get Back
  15. Getting better
  16. Good Day Sunshine
  17. Got To Get You Into My Life
  18. Here there and everywhere
  19. Hey jude
  20. I Want To Hold Your Hand
  21. If I Fell 
  22. In My Life
  23. Lady Madonna
  24. Let it be
  25. Lucy In The Sky With Diamonds
  26. Maxwell’s silver hammer
  27. Michelle
  28. Norwegian Woods
  29. Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da
  30. Paperback Writer
  31. She’s Leaving Home
  32. She Loves You
  33. Something
  34. Ticket To Ride
  35. This Boy — Ringo’s Theme
  36. The fool on the hill
  37. The long and winding road
  38. We Can Work It Out
  39. When I’m Sixty Four
  40. With A Little Help From My Friends
  41. Yellow Submarine
  42. Yesterday

Lara Fabian

  1. Bambina
  2. Broken Vow
  3. Je Suis Malade
  4. Je T’aime
  5. La Lettre
  6. Si Tu M`aimes
  7. The Dream Within

Justin Bieber

  1. Eenie Meenie
  2. Lonely Girl
  3. Down To Earth
  4. Baby
  5. Never Let You Go
  6. One Time
  7. Where are you now
  8. You smile 


  1. Another one bites the dust
  2. Bicycle race
  3. Bohemian rhapsody
  4. Calling all girls
  5. Crazy little thing called love
  6. Fat bottomed girls
  7. Flash
  8. Good old-fashioned lover boy
  9. I am in love with my car
  10. I want to break free
  11. It is a hard life
  12. It is late
  13. Keep yourself alive
  14. Killer queen
  15. Long away
  16. Need your loving tonight
  17. Play the game
  18. Radio ga ga
  19. Save me
  20. Somebody to love
  21. Tie your mother down
  22. Tear it up
  23. Under pressure
  24. We are the champions
  25. You are my best friend


  1. A Day Without Rain
  2. Flora’s Secret
  3. Only Time
  4. Tempus Vernum
  5. Wild Child

Joe D’Assin

  1. A Toi
  2. Billy Le Bordelais
  3. Ca Va Pas Changer Le Monde
  4. Dans Les Yeux D’Emilie
  5. La Bande A Bonnot
  6. Le Dernier Slow
  7. L’Amerique
  8. Et Si Tu N’existais Pas (1 вариант)
  9. Et si tu n`existait pas (2 вариант)
  10. Fais La Bise A Ta Maman
  11. IL Etait Une Fois Nous Deux
  12. La Fleur Aux Dents
  13. La Luzerne
  14. Le Chemin De Papa
  15. Les Champs-Elysees
  16. Les Dalton
  17. L’ete Indien
  18. Marie Jeanne
  19. Si Tu T’Appelles Melancolie
  20. Salut Les Amoureux


  1. 27 May
  2. All Myself To You
  3. Chaconne
  4. Do You
  5. Dream
  6. Falling…
  7. I
  8. I’m just a…
  9. Indigo
  10. Kiss the rain

The Doors

  1. Break On Through
  2. Do It
  3. Hello, I love You
  4. I Looked At You
  5. Light My Fire
  6. My Eyes Have Seen You
  7. Riders On The Storm
  8. Tell All The People
  9. Wild Child
  10. You Make Me Real


    1. All I want for christmas is you
    2. Nothing else matters (Metallica)
    3. Right here waiting for you (Richard Marx)
    4. L`Italiano (Тото Кутуньо)
    5. Song From A Secret Garden (дуэт Secret Garden)
    6. Sorry seems to be the hardest word (Элтон Джон)
    7. Don’t Worry Be Happy (Bobby McFerrin)
    8. Shape of my heart (Backstreet Boys)
  1. Ригодон
  2. Hijo de la luna (Mecano)
  3. Fairytale (А. Рыбак)
  4. Smells Like Teen Spirit
  5. Tears Of The Ocean

Ноты музыки из русских фильмов

  1. Остров невезения
  2. Песня про зайцев
  3. Помоги мне

Ирония судьбы или с легким паром

  1. Со мною вот что происходит
  2. Я спросил у ясеня
  3. Никого не будет в доме
  4. По улице моей
  5. У зеркала
  6. Мне нравится, что вы больны не мной

Кавказская пленница

  1. Если б я был султан
  2. Песенка о медведях

Служебный роман

  1. Мелодия
  2. Моей душе покоя нет
  3. У природы нет плохой погоды

Гардемарины вперед

  1. Не вешать нос, гардемарины!
  2. Дороги любви
  3. Ланфрен-ланфра
  4. Разлука
  5. Песня о дружбе
  6. Баллада о Байстрюке

Жестокий романс

  1. А напоследок я скажу…
  2. Снегурочка
  3. Романс о романсе

12 стульев

  1. Вальс
  2. Кафешантан
  3. Краковяк
  4. Мадам Грицацуева в погоне за Остапом
  5. Марш тиражной комиссии
  6. Полосатая жизнь
  7. Птичка на ветвях его души
  8. Художники
  9. Эллочка-людоедка

Земля Санникова

  1. Все было
  2. Есть только миг
  3. Сюита

На Дерибасовской хорошая погода, на Брайтон Бич опять идут дожди

  1. Мой поезд уехал
  2. Хелло, Америка


    1. Смуглянка из фильма «В бой идут одни старики»
    2. Темная ночь из фильма «Два бойца»
    3. Старый клен из фильма «Девчата»
    4. Александра из фильма «Москва слезам не верит»
    5. Позвони мне, позвони… из фильма «Карнавал»
    6. Мне нравится, что Вы больны не мной (Ирония судьбы)
  1. Город, которого нет (Бандитский Петербург)
  2. Не растравляй моей души! (Петербургские тайны)

Русский романс

    1. Ах, зачем эта ночь
    2. Белой акации гроздья душистые
    3. В час роковой
    4. Вы просите песен, их нет у меня
    5. Выхожу один я на дорогу
    6. Газовая косынка
    7. Гори, гори, моя звезда
    8. Две гитары
    9. Дремлют плакучие ивы
    10. Калитка
    11. Не брани меня, родная
    12. Нет, не любил он
    13. Нет, нет не хочу!
    14. Не пробуждай воспоминаний
    15. Не растравляй моей души!
    16. Не уходи, побудь со мною
    17. Ночь светла
    18. О, жизнь моя, постой! Не уходи!
    19. Однозвучно гремит колокольчик
    20. Осенние листья
    21. Отговорила роща золотая
    22. Отцвели хризантемы
    23. Очи черные (1 вариант)
    24. Очи черные (вариант 2)
    25. Пожалей
    26. Прощай
    27. Романс о романсе
    28. Тройка мчится
  1. Что это сердце?
  2. Я ехала домой
  3. Я люблю Вас так безумно
  4. Я помню вальса звук прелестный

Песни ВОВ

    1. 22 июня
    2. А годы уходят
    3. А туман на луга ложится
    4. Аджимушкай
    5. Азовская партизанская
    6. Александровский сад
    7. Алёша
    8. Баксанская
    9. Баллада о красках
    10. Баллада о ледовой трассе
    11. Баллада о матери
    12. Баллада о Матросове
    13. Баллада о моем солдате
    14. Баллада о надежде
    15. Баллада о солдате
    16. Баллада о солдатском сне
    17. Баллада о Тане Савичевой
    18. Баллада о фронтовом кинооператоре
    19. Белорусская партизанская
    20. Бомбардировщики
    21. Бывалый моряк
    22. Была судьба
    23. Вечер на рейде
    24. Где ж ты, мой сад
    25. Где же вы теперь, друзья-однополчане
    26. Где-то около Бреста
    27. Где-то под Бекетовкой
    28. Годы огневые
    29. Горячий снег
    30. Грозой овеянные сны
    31. Грустные ивы
    32. Давай, дружище, помечтаем
    33. Давай закурим
    34. Давно мы дома не были
    35. Далеко иль недалечко
    36. Далеко родные осины
    37. Два солдата
    38. Двадцать пятое августа
    39. Две подруги
    40. Девятая застава
    41. Девятое мая
    42. День Победы
    43. Держитесь, ветераны!
    44. Дни войны
    45. Довоенный вальс
    46. Дубрава
    47. Дунай-голубой
    48. До свиданья, города и хаты
    49. Дороги
    50. Ехал казак воевать
    51. Ехал я из Берлина
    52. Если б не было войны
    53. Если отец герой
    54. Жди меня
    55. Заветный камень
    56. Играй, мой баян
    57. Когда песню поешь
    58. Моя любимая
    59. Моя Москва
    60. На солнечной поляночке
    61. Огонек
    62. Ой, туманы мои, растуманы
    63. Песня о Днепре
    64. Пришла и к нам на фронт весна
    65. Священная война
  1. Синий платочек
  2. Смуглянка
  3. Темная ночь


From the 1810s Beethoven’s reputation went largely undisputed by contemporary critics, and most of his works received favourable initial reviews. For example, an anonymous reviewer in October 1822 described the Op. 110 sonata as «superb» and offered «repeated thanks to its creator». In 1824, an anonymous critic reviewing the Opp. 109–111 sonatas wrote in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung that contemporary opposition against Beethoven’s works «had only small, fleeting success». The critic then commented, «Scarcely had any of ‘s artistic productions entered into the world than their fame was forever established.»

Adolf Bernhard Marx, in his March 1824 review of the sonata, lauded Beethoven’s work and particularly praised the third movement’s fugue, adding that the fugue «must be studied along with the richest ones by Sebastian Bach and Händel.» In the 1860 edition of his biography of Beethoven, Anton Schindler wrote that the fugue «is not difficult to play but is full of charm and beauty.» Likewise, William Kinderman describes the fugue’s subject as a «sublime fugal idiom».

When writing about the sonata in 1909, Hermann Wetzel observed, «Not a single note is superfluous, and there is no passage … that can be treated as you please, no trivial ornament». Martin Cooper claimed in 1970 that Op. 110 was the most frequently played out of the last five Beethoven piano sonatas.

In the program notes for his 2020 online concert of the Opp. 109–111 sonatas, Jonathan Biss writes of Op. 110: «In none of the other 31 piano sonatas does Beethoven cover as much emotional territory: it goes from the absolute depths of despair to utter euphoria … it is unbelievably compact given its emotional richness, and its philosophical opening idea acts as the work’s thesis statement, permeating the work, and reaching its apotheosis in its final moments.»

Ноты музыки из зарубежных фильмов

  1. Bop to the Top
  2. Breaking Free
  3. Get’cha Head in the Game
  4. I can`t take my eyes off of you
  5. Start of somethign new
  6. Stick to the status quo
  7. We`re all in this together
  8. What I`ve been looking for
  9. When there was me and you

Пираты Карибского моря – На краю Света

  1. At Wit’s End
  2. Brethren Court
  3. Drink Up Me Hearties
  4. Hoist The Colours
  5. I Don’t Think Now’s The Time
  6. I See Dead People In Boats
  7. One Day
  8. Singapore
  9. Up Is Down

Пираты Карибского моря — Сундук мертвеца

  1. Davy Jones plays his organ
  2. Davy Jones
  3. Dinner is served
  4. I’ve got my eye on you
  5. Jack Sparrow
  6. Kraken
  7. Two hornpipes
  8. Wheel of Fortune

The Phantom of the Opera (мюзикл)

  1. Angel of music
  2. Music of the night
  3. The Phantom of the Opera

Chicago (мюзикл)

  1. Nowadays
  2. All I care about
  3. All that jazz
  4. Class
  5. Funny honey
  6. Mister Cellophane
  7. Razzle Dazzle
  8. When you`re good to mama

Lord of the Rings Trilogy

  1. Twilight And Shadow
  2. The Steward Of Gondor
  3. Rohan
  4. The Return Of The King
  5. The Prophecy
  6. Minas Tirith
  7. Many Meetings
  8. May It Be
  9. Lament for Gandalf 
  10. Isengard unleashed
  11. In Dreams
  12. Gollum’s song
  13. Forth Eorlingas
  14. Evenstar
  15. Breath of Life
  16. Aniron


    1. Тема из кинофильма X-files
    2. Симпсоны
    3. Розовая пантера (The Pink Panther)
    4. История любви (Love Story)
  1. My Heart Will Go On (Titanik)
  2. Тема любви (Ромео и Джульетта)
  3. The Meadow (Сумерки)

Background, About the Composition

Ludwig van Beethoven (1770 – 1827) wrote the Piano Sonata No.31 in A♭ major, op.110, in 1821 — in terms of piano compositions, “only” the sonata op.111, the Diabelli Variations (op.120) and two sets of Bagatelles (op.119 and op.126) were to follow.

I. Moderato cantabile molto espressivo (3/4)

The first movement is annotated Moderato cantabile molto espressivo — formally, it is a sonata movement with exposition (39 bars), a development section (16 bars), a recapitulation (49 bars) and a Coda (12 bars), but it lacks a distinct (“classic”) first and second theme of 8, 16 or 32 bars: it rather works with “theme fragments”. The first theme fragment is just 4 bars and opens the movement, whereby the last bar leads over to the next theme, a very nice melody with semiquaver accompaniment:

That melody just last 7 bars and is followed by an 8-bar demisemiquaver cascade, followed by “sort of” a second theme of 8 bars, which again is broken up into two 4-bar periods, where the second part can be seen as transition to a third theme of 10 bars. the development period primarily works with material from the initial 4 bars; the recapitulation is following anything but the classic idea of a harmonic variation of the exposition — it does roughly follow the exposition, but also freely combines / associates material from the various theme fragments. Overall, more of a fascinating fantasy than a rigid sonata movement.

II. Allegro molto (2/4)

The second movement has Scherzo character, in AABB – C – ABB-Coda form, whereby “A” is 8 bars, “B” is 32 bars; here’s the start of the movement with the “A” part and the first bares of “B”:

The “C” Part is mostly a sequence of 8-bar periods with quaver cascades ending in syncopated crotchet sforzati:

After the final repetition of the “B” part, the movement suddenly switches to a short, unexpected Coda that ends in a “ritardando question mark or colon”, supposed to open the expectation for the final movement, although there is no indication of an attacca:

The third and last movement is big and multi-faceted. One might think that the lead-out Coda in the preceding movement allows the composer to start the next movement in medias res — but not only is there no attacca indication, as mentioned, but that last movement starts with an introduction in B♭ minor, initially Adagio ma non troppo, but then interrupted with a recitativo bar (più adagio, ending in a brief Andante), followed by another Adagio, where a bar of more & more rapidly repeated notes (a” flat) in the right hand modulates to the dominant of E major, then leads into another recitativo bar (Meno adagio, then Adagio), which ends diminuendo smorzando, arriving in E♭ minor —


And only after these 26 bars of a dramatic, expressive opening, we finally arrive at an impressive, three-part fuga in A♭ major (6/8), Allegro ma non troppo:

The fugue builds up into a stretta culmination, but then falls down into broken chords that lead into another Arioso (L’istesso tempo di Arioso), annotated Ermattend klagend, Perdendo le forze, dolente (losing forces, mourning), about the same length as the first Arioso, but this time in G minor, again 12/16:

Towards the end, this Arioso loses all remaining forces, ending in a diminuendo, una corda — just to move into a miraculous transfiguration, with a set of chords, crescendo, implicitly written staccato, but with the sustain pedal kept down, modulating to G major:

and then there’s another fugue, with the same theme as the first one, but inverted:

this fugue does not start firmly or forceful, but una corda and p, but slowly reviving. After an episode in G minor, the music definitely brightens up to A♭ major, building up from a Meno allegro section,

ending a glorious, jubilant, joyful, almost ecstatic, final culmination — truly per aspera ad astra!


In the summer of 1819, Adolf Martin Schlesinger, from the Schlesinger firm of music publishers based in Berlin, sent his son Maurice to meet Beethoven to form business relations with the composer. The two met in Mödling, where Maurice left a favourable impression on the composer. After some negotiation by letter, the elder Schlesinger offered to purchase three piano sonatas for 90 ducats in April 1820, though Beethoven had originally asked for 120 ducats. In May 1820, Beethoven agreed, and he undertook to deliver the sonatas within three months. These three sonatas are the ones now known as Opp. , 110, and , the last of Beethoven’s piano sonatas.

The composer was prevented from completing the promised sonatas on schedule by several factors, including his work on the Missa solemnis (Op. 123), rheumatic attacks in the winter of 1820, and a bout of jaundice in the summer of 1821. Barry Cooper notes that Op. 110 «did not begin to take shape» until the latter half of 1821. Although Op. 109 was published by Schlesinger in November 1821, correspondence shows that Op. 110 was still not ready by the middle of December 1821. The sonata’s completed autograph score bears the date 25 December 1821, but Beethoven continued to revise the last movement and did not finish until early 1822. The copyist’s score was presumably delivered to Schlesinger around this time, since Beethoven received a payment of 30 ducats for the sonata in January 1822.

Adolf Schlesinger’s letters to Beethoven in July 1822 confirm that the sonata, along with Op. 111, was being engraved in Paris. The sonata was published simultaneously in Paris and Berlin that year, and it was announced in the Bibliographie de la France on 14 September. Some copies of the first edition reached Vienna as early as August, and the sonata was announced in the Wiener Zeitung that month. The sonata was published without a dedication, though there is evidence that Beethoven intended to dedicate Opp. 110 and 111 to Antonie Brentano. In February 1823, Beethoven sent a letter to the composer Ferdinand Ries in London, informing him that he had sent manuscripts of Opp. 110 and 111 so that Ries could arrange their publication in Britain. Beethoven noted that while Op. 110 was already available in London, the edition had mistakes that would be corrected in Ries’s edition. Ries persuaded Muzio Clementi to acquire the British rights to the two sonatas, and Clementi published them in London that year.

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